Issue of English in Bangladesh: 2nd Language or Foreign Language

Mom tongue or initial language is probably the most favourite thing for any person. The query of language has resulted into many conflicts and discontentment. The prime case in point of this sort of discontentment is the Language Motion of 1952 in Bangladesh. On the other hand we can not stay in isolation. We have to be in speak to with the speakers of other languages. Bangladesh is regarded as to be a monolingual country in which much more than 98% of the populace is speakers of Bangla language. Even so, there are far more than ten languages in this kind of a small place like Bangladesh. Monipuri, Urdu, Chakma, Santali, Garo, Rakhain, Tipra- are just some of the other languages present in Bangladesh.
The exciting thing is that Urdu is a Indo-European language but composed in Arabic script, Santali belongs to the Mono-Khemar language family members although Chakma belongs to the Chinese-Barmese language team. So, even though Bangladesh is often portrayed as a country of linguistic unity based mostly on Bangla language in reality it has noteworthy linguistic diversity. To connect with the speakers of other languages we both require to know their language or connect in a Lingua-Franca that is comprehensible to equally of us.
Nowadays, the planet has grow to be a international village. Thanks to the advancement of interaction technique and technological innovation. Each and every nation is dependent on other people for trade and commerce, education and learning, politics and so forth. As a outcome, we have to consistently communicate with other countries and speakers of other languages. Third planet countries like Bangladesh have to rely on foreign aid since they are not self-adequate. As a consequence, a lot of foreigners come to Bangladesh. A 3rd factor is the element of religion. The sacred language of the Muslims is Arabic, Sanskrit for Hindus, Pali for the Buddhists and Latin for the Christians.
All these variables remind us the requirement for finding out other language(s) in addition to our mother tongue. According to this fact many countries of the entire world have adopted a European language as next language which is usually used in education and learning, legislation court, financial activities and federal government works. These languages have most of the time formal standing in the constitution of these international locations. Several of the situations the countries have adopted the language of their past colonial rulers as the 2nd language. Sometimes these languages are also called formal language. In many African nations around the world we can see this image. On the other hand, some European languages have turn into very critical in the globe for literary and economic purposes. For illustration, German and French are considered to be important languages of the entire world because both of them have influential literature and financial factors related with them.
For example, several people in our country are intrigued to learn French simply because it may possibly support them to get UN employment and employment in Multinational firms. Yet another appealing inspiration for studying French in Bangladesh is that it may support us to immigrate to Canada as skill in French language presents a person some added details in the level system of Canadian immigration.
The title of my study is “Standing of English in Bangladesh: Next language or international language?” I have chosen this matter due to the fact from sociolinguistic level of check out the status of English is a really exciting one particular. On the a single hand English language is dominantly present in every facet of our national daily life while on the other hand in our structure it is evidently declared that the language of the country is Bangla. In reality, nothing is said about the position of English language in our constitution. On one particular hand, financial routines in the private firms are carried out in English whilst there is a authorities regulation (Bangla procholon ain1987) that govt offices should use Bangla in their official operates. So from the govt point of see Bangla is the national- formal language of Bangladesh and English is the most crucial foreign language. But in truth English is the second language of the country and in numerous areas English is a lot more critical than Bangla in Bangladesh.
Second language:
A next language is any language other than the initial, or native, language uncovered it is generally employed due to the fact of geographical or social motives. The phrase is to be distinguished from foreign language linguist Eric Lenneberg makes use of second language in his crucial interval hypothesis to mean a language consciously realized or utilised by its speaker soon after puberty. In most instances, men and women by no means obtain the same amount of fluency and comprehension in their second languages as in their very first language.
Historically in Europe, the most extensively utilised next language (or lingua franca) was Latin. It was employed by the Church by the Legislation (as it nevertheless is today) in Medicine (beginning considerably later) Horticulture and biological classification of plants, animals, fruits, nuts, and so forth.
Latin was utilised so considerably across Europe that it was referred to as the vulgar (or frequent tongue) this is why the Latin variation of the Bible is referred to as the Vulgate.
Presently, English is regarded as the world’s most popular second language it is utilized in locations as various as the world wide web, tv and radio, and worldwide aviation.
The success of English all through the entire world stems from two major leads to: the far reaching affect of the British Empire, and the twentieth century (and continuing) dominance of the United States in the fields of company and entertainment.
French was for a time the lingua franca (the origin of term) in Europe. In history, each England and France had been ruled by a one crown – the language employed by the royal court docket was French (English was deemed “the peasant’s language”). Afterwards, as was the case with English, the French empire distribute its language by way of colonization. French proceeds to be one particular of the world’s most commonly spoken languages. (Resource: Wikipedia)
If we look at the definition of second language then we can effortlessly say that English is the second language of Bangladesh. It is commonly utilised in several components of our countrywide daily life. Several individuals look at English television channels and also use Internet. The college students have to research it for twelve a long time and individuals who want to sign up for civil service by attending BCS test also have to sit for English assessment. The only point that is missing from the previously mentioned definition is the fact that other than for formal events no a single speaks in English in Bangladesh. It is not the language utilized in house amid loved ones associates and amongst buddies in casual dialogue.
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Foreign language:
A overseas language is a language not spoken by the indigenous folks of a specified location: for illustration, English is a foreign language in Japan. It is also a language not spoken in the native region of the person referred to, i.e. an English speaker living in Japan can say that Japanese is a overseas language to him or her.
Some children find out far more than one particular language from delivery or from a extremely young age: they are bilingual. These youngsters can be said to have two mom tongues: neither language is international to that little one, even if one particular language is a foreign language for the vast majority of men and women in the child’s delivery region. For illustration, a kid finding out English from her English mom in Japan can communicate the two English and Japanese, but neither is a foreign language to her. (Supply- Wikipedia)
From the previously mentioned definition, it is witnessed that overseas language refers to a language that is not indigenous to a individual. From this position of view English can be deemed as a international language in Bangladesh given that it is not native in our region. Barely any Bangladeshi person speaks in English though numerous of them use it in education and business.
Official language:
An formal language is anything that is presented a exclusive status in the nations around the world, states, and other territories. It is normally the language used in a nation’s legislative bodies, even though the regulation in a lot of nations needs that federal government paperwork be made in other languages as properly.
Officially regarded minority languages are usually mistaken for formal languages. Even so, a language formally recognized by a state, taught in colleges, and utilised in official conversation is not always an official language. For example, Ladin and Sardinian in Italy and Mirandese in Portugal are only formally regarded minority languages, not formal languages in the strict sense.
50 % of the nations around the world in the planet have official languages. Some have only a single official language, this sort of as Albania, France, or Lithuania, despite the truth that in all these countries there are other native languages spoken as effectively. Some have more than a single official language, these kinds of as Afghanistan, Belarus, Belgium, Bolivia, Canada, Eritrea, Finland, India, Paraguay, South Africa, and Switzerland.
In some nations around the world, this kind of as Iraq, Italy, Russia and Spain, there is an formal language for the place, but other languages are co-official in some important areas. Some nations around the world, such as Australia, Sweden, Tuvalu, and the United States have no formal languages.
The formal languages of some previous colonies, usually French or English, are not the countrywide languages or the most commonly spoken language.
In distinction, as a consequence of nationalism, Irish is the “national language” of the Republic of Ireland and its 1st formal language, even though it is spoken by only a little fraction of its people. English, which is spoken by the greater part, is described only as the next official language (Structure of Eire, Write-up 8).
In some international locations, the issue of which language is to be utilized in what context is a significant political situation.(Source-Wikipedia)
From the previously mentioned definition, it is observed that the notion of official language is complex. According to our constitution English can not be termed as the formal language of Bangladesh considering that it has no position in our constitution. The only language that is talked about in our constitution is Bangla. But English is permitted in our parliament and a lot of government events. For illustration, when there is a government occasion in which some foreigners go to then in numerous instances the speakers use English language. Numerous crucial government paperwork are written equally in Bangla and English. The parliament proceedings are held into these two languages. When a government human body organizes a honest then usually the memento is released in English.
Structure:
About the language of the nation the Bangladeshi structure obviously states:
“The state language.
The state language of the Republic is [Bangla].”
(Source: [http://www.pmo.gov.bd/structure/consti2.htm#three].)
In the constitution nothing is talked about about the position of English. English is not pointed out as a next language or formal language. So if we get the position of English in our constitution then we are not able to assert that English is a Next language or Formal Language in Bangladesh.
English in Law court in Bangladesh:
Following Independence the govt took the initiative to apply Bangla language in regulation court docket. As a end result, now the decrease courts have out their actions in Bangla but English is however quite influential in Higher Court and Supreme Court docket. If a attorney would like to apply in Supreme court docket then he should have a very good command more than English language. A lot of of the judges nevertheless give their verdicts in English language. It appears that this trend of employing English will stay for the forcible future.
English in Training sector in Bangladesh:
Official and institutionalized schooling system started in Bangladesh throughout the British rule. At that time Bangladesh was element of British India. There was a discussion about the medium of education. Raja Rammohan Roy argued that the medium must be English rather than Sanskrit or Persian. In the course of the British period of time the medium of schooling was mostly in English. Calcutta College took an initiative in 1935 to introduce Bangla as a medium of education and learning together with English. In Bangladesh the use of Bangla in university stage started out in the sixties. Now learners can response in the exams in Bangla or English. In the school degree and college level following 1971 the federal government attempted to patronize Bangla and implement it by changing English in the training sector but this did not arrived into truth since of some fundamental troubles. The initial dilemma is that there had been not ample textbooks of any field in Bangla language. This issue is far more acute in science and technologies. For instance, there are virtually no textbooks in Bangla about pc engineering that can be employed as a reference e-book in the College degree.
Actually there are three sorts of schooling methods in our place- Bangla medium, English medium, and Madrasa method. Bangla medium colleges can be divided into two sections- authorities schools, and kindergarten faculties. In the kindergarten educational institutions far more emphasis is offered on English language than authorities educational institutions. Some of the well-known kindergarten schools of Dhaka are Vikarounnesa, Holycross, Willes Small Flower, and so on. Despite the fact that these colleges belong to Bangla medium the college students have to review 3-4 English guides like: Radiant Way, Active English, Desk Function, Fundamental English, Brighter Grammar, and so on. On the other hand in the government schools there is mainly one English guide (English for These days) which is published by Bangladesh Textual content Book Board. The English medium colleges do not follow Bangladeshi education and learning system and are under the supervision of British Council. The medium of instruction in these educational institutions is English and several of the college students of English medium are even really weak in Bangla language. There are two types of Madrassas – Dakhil and Kawmi. The Kawmi Madrassas are not identified by the federal government and do not obtain any help from the federal government. In this Madrassas emphasis is provided on understanding Arabic, Persian, and Urdu while Bangla and English are neglected. On the other hand in Dakhil Madrassas emphasis is largely presented on Arabic and Bangla and English are not so significantly neglected.
So we can evidently see that the big difference in schooling program in Bangladesh is only based mostly on the difference in the medium of training. Although Bangla is the Countrywide-Formal language of Bangladesh it is the English medium training institutes who get much more funds. The rise of non-public universities has only enhanced the status and value of English language in Bangladesh. There are now a lot more than 50 private Universities in Bangladesh and the medium of schooling in all of them is English. These universities demand 2 lakh to five lakh taka for Bachelor system. If the medium of schooling was in Bangla then barely any college student or mother and father would get intrigued to shell out this kind of enormous income for the training in personal universities.
From the over dialogue it is obvious that in our general training technique English has equal if not more significance than Bangla. In our education method English is actually the Second language as all the pupils have to examine it as a obligatory subject matter for twelve a long time.
English and Administration:
During the language motion the folks of Bangladesh ended up scared that if Urdu was set up as the State Language of Pakistan then all the authorities activities will be carried out in Urdu and our folks will endure. As a result of the language motion, the Pakistani Routine kept on carrying out government routines in English language. Soon after Bangladesh turned impartial the authorities of Awami League made a decision to change English with Bangla in administrative works but soon after the loss of life of Sheikh Mujib this process came to a halt and English continued to remain as the dominant language. It was in the course of the rule of Ershad Bangla Procholon Aeen of 1987 was produced and carried out. From that time English began to lose its significance in administration. Nonetheless, it has to be described that all the worldwide communication of Bangladesh federal government is carried out through English.
English in Financial activities:
The economic system of Bangladesh is dependent on international aids and export of some frequent products like ready produced garments, jute, tea, fish and many others and also we import a great deal of factors. Bangladesh is not self adequate economically. Investing is more well-known than manufacturing. Buying and selling calls for continuous communication with overseas companies. Numerous of the organizations who are involved in investing have to use English in dealing with foreigners. Suppose, a organization is performing trading with China which is not an English speaking place. Then the company has to speak to the Chinese organization in English. If we look at the adverts of the private sector jobs then we can easily recognize that most of the work commercials are posted in English. Even most of the non-public sector work adverts that are posted in Bengali newspapers are posted in English. Practically all the non-public employment state that the candidates must have great proficiency in English language. Practically all the public restricted firms publish their once-a-year stories in English. Some of these companies make a Bangla variation of their annual report but the emphasis is constantly on English. So it is distinct that English is the dominant language in our financial routines.
Comparison of English with Arabic, Sanskrit, and Pali in Bangladesh:
Arabic, Sanskrit and Pali are the religious languages of Muslims, Hindus and Buddhists respectively. Even the uneducated men and women attempt to find out these languages as they are considered to be holy. If we assess the understanding of English with these languages then we can see that English is offered much more importance. For example, the tuition fee of a English coaching center is a lot increased than that of an Arabic coaching centre. English non-public tutors get four-5 moments much more money than Arabic private tutors (Huzur). So even though Arabic has religious sentiment attached to it English is regarded to be much more essential as it has financial advantage.
Comparison of English overseas languages like French, German, and Farsi:
French and German have become extremely well-liked for economic motives in our country. Learning these languages aid us to increase our possibility to get a UN job. Studying French is also beneficial for receiving immigration to Canada. Also there are great amenities to discover these languages in Dhaka College, Alliance Francaise, and Goethe Institute. Just lately, the English Institute of North South College has launched French system. On the other hand for the duration of the Muslim reign Farsi was the language of the Royal administration and legislation court in Bangladesh. At present, a college student can show up at Farsi course for one semester by just having to pay tk. 250 in Iran Cultural Middle but there are not many pupils who are intrigued to learn Farsi, French, and German. On the other hand, hundreds of college students every yr appear for TOEFL and IELTS exams in English language.
From the earlier mentioned picture it is very clear that the standing of English is much increased than foreign languages like German, French, and Farsi. We can not deny the actuality that if a individual is excellent at English then he can receive money in any part of Bangladesh but if a individual is good at French, German, or Farsi he has hardly any scope to make money by employing his expertise in these languages.
Recommendations:
From the discussion so far there is no doubt that English is the next language of Bangladesh but this actuality is not mirrored in our structure. Formally Bangladesh is not acknowledged as an ESL region to the exterior globe. So Bangladesh must be declared as an ESL region by the authorities with out any hold off. We find out English not because we like Shakespeare or Dickens. We understand English from out of each working day requirement. If Bangladesh is declared as an ESL region and English language is presented a obvious position in the structure then it will not only replicate the fact but also it will help us internationally. Now Bangladesh is desperately striving to attract overseas buyers. Prior to any company will come to Bangladesh for checking out the investment possibilities a single of the crucial regions they would seem for is the availability of pool of English graduates and they also assume that the normal employees will have basic understanding of English language. If we become an ESL region then these international organizations whilst browsing about Bangladesh will get assured about the strong presence of English language in this country.
The very same picture is there about instructional sector. A lot of Bangladeshi college students want to go to produced nations like United states, British isles , Canada, and Australia for greater education and learning. If Bangladesh is declared as an ESL region then these learners will be benefited due to the fact then the Universities of individuals countries will get the concept that English has particular importance in Bangladesh.
So I recommend to the federal government of Bangladesh that English must be declared as the next language of the place by amending the constitution.
Summary:
Bangladesh is the only nation in the entire world whose folks sacrificed their lives for the language. Now the historic language motion of 1952 is acknowledged internationally as the Intercontinental Mother Language Working day. It is real that our men and women are emotional about their language, Bangla. However, it is equally true that now our folks have turn into desperate about receiving competent in English language. As a end result, there are far more than fifty personal universities now in Bangladesh. If North South Presented BBA and Computer Science programs in Bangla medium then they would not get even ten% of the amount of students they have now. It is now good time that we complete the excellent contradiction about the language issue and declare Bangladesh as an ESL place for our very own gain.

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